Executive Summary of Pepsico Through my research of Pepsico, I have calculated the cost of capital. A firm's cost of capital is imperative because it represents the funds used to finance the firm's assets and operations. First you have to estimate the cost of capital in order to minimize it. In estimating the cost of capital, you first have to find the cost of each capital component and then combine the component costs to find the weighted average cost of capital. First, I calculated the cost of debt. Pepsico's bond consisted of 7 5/8 coupon rate, maturing in 1998 at a price of $1023.80. I figured the payments to be $38.15(.0763*1000/2). I then used my financial calculator to find the bond yield of 5.16% by entering in 1023.80=PV, 1000=FV, 2= N, 38.15=PMT. The bond was calculated semi-annually, therefore I multiplied the answer for I/Y times 2 to get 5.16%. The next step would be to calculate the preferred stock, however my stock had none. I then went to the third step of calculating cost of retained earnings. First I found the three growth rates which were historical, forecast, and sustainable growth. The historical and forecast annual rates I simply pulled directly from Value Line under Past 10 years and estimated years of the dividends. They both were 14.0%. The sustainable growth is calculated by taking the retention rate (b) and multiplying it by the return on equity (r ). To find b, I first calculated the dividends payout ratio which is DPS/EPS. I pulled DPS and EPS from value line under 1997. Then to find the retention rate, I subtracted the ratio from 1. Next, I calculated r, by taking net income and dividing it by net worth. These figures I also pulled from Value Line. My b= .352, and r=28.68%. Then the third growth rate was 10.10(.352*28.68). Still calculating the cost of retained earnings, I then calculated my cash flows by the discounted cash flow approach. For the first three cash flows, I took the dividend of the stock over the price of the stock, and then added the growth rate to it. My first cash flow equaled to 15.38%, second was also 15.38%, and the third one was 11.45%. To find the cash flow four, I used the CAPM approach. This formula is Ks=Krf + (Km-Krf)bs. I found beta on Value Line which was .95. The risk free rate was found by obtaining the current yield on a 20yr. T-bond from the Wall Street Journal. It equaled 6.60%. The Km-Krf was found in the book, and equaled 7.
ROS (Robot Operating System) is a framework for robot software development, providing operating system-like functionality on top of a heterogenous computer cluster. ROS was originally developed in 2007 under the name switchyard by the Stanford Artificial Intelligence Laboratory in support of the Stanford AI Robot (STAIR) project. As of 2008, development continues primarily at Willow Garage, a robotics research institute/incubator, with more than twenty institutions collaborating in a federated development model .ROS provides standard operating system services such as hardware abstraction, low-level device control, implementation of commonly-used functionality, message-passing between processes, and package management. It is based on a graph architecture where processing takes place in nodes that may receive, post and multiplex sensor, control, state, planning, actuator and other messages. The library is geared towards a Unix-like system (Ubuntu Linux is listed as â€˜supported' while other variants such as Fedora and Mac OS X are considered â€˜experimental') but is intended to be cross-platform.At present Windows is listed as having â€˜partial functionality' . ROS has two basic â€œsidesâ€: The operating system side ros as described above and ros-pkg, a suite of user contributed packages (organized into sets called stacks) that implement functionality such as simultaneous localization and mapping, planning, perception, simulation etc. ROS is released under the terms of the BSD license, and is open source software. It is free for commercial and research use. The ros-pkg contributed packages are licensed under a variety of open source licenses.
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